Freeze Avoidance means a bug must spend the season somewhere that will remain above their SCP temperature. It’s the predominant survival approach for our winter bugs.
Bugs search out protective sites that are warmer than air temperature like in leaf piles or under rocks, logs, and man-made structures. Tree bark protects bugs, so some female species lay eggs into bark crevices. The dead stems of herbaceous plants hold bugs including some of our native bees. This is why you should “leave your leaves” and not clean up your planting beds until temperatures are warm enough for bugs to have emerged from diapause (more about that later).
Soil is particularly protective. Cicada nymphs dig deep underground below the frost line. Many beetles survive as grubs (larvae) in the soil. Adult queen bumblebees overwinter in holes underground while solitary mining bee eggs overwinter in individual chambers. Some butterflies, moths, and grasshoppers lay their eggs directly in the soil for overwintering. Flies can overwinter in the soil as pupae.
Then there are the numerous bugs that have evolved with aquatic egg and larvae stages to overwinter under water in ponds below the ice. These include dragonflies, stoneflies, mayflies, and caddisflies.